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IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2006 Aug;53(8):1512-20.

Computer modeling of ventricular rhythm during atrial fibrillation and ventricular pacing.

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Micro Systems Engineering Inc, Lake Oswego, OR 97035, USA.


We propose a unified atrial fibrillation (AF)-ventricular pacing (VP) (AF-VP) model to demonstrate the effects of VP on the ventricular rhythm during atrial fibrillation AF. In this model, the AV junction (AVJ) is treated as a lumped structure characterized by refractoriness and automaticity. Bombarded by random AF impulses, the AVJ can also be invaded by the VP-induced retrograde wave. The model includes bidirectional conduction delays in the AVJ and ventricle. Both refractory period and conduction delay of the AVJ are dependent upon its recovery time. The electrotonic modulation by blocked impulses is also considered in the model. Our simulations show that, with proper parameter settings, the present model can account for most principal statistical properties of the RR intervals during AF. We further demonstrate that the AV conduction property and the ventricular rate in AF depend on both AF rate and the degree of electrotonic modulation in the AVJ. Finally, we show that multilevel interactions between AF and VP can generate various patterns of ventricular rhythm that are consistent with previous experimental observations.

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