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J Appl Microbiol. 2006 Sep;101(3):616-9.

Beyond the spore--past and future developments of Bacillus thuringiensis as a biopesticide.

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School of Life Sciences, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton, UK.


Formulated and sporulated cultures of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are widely used as foliar sprays as part of integrated pest management strategies against insect pests of agricultural crops. Although in several cases the presence of the spore has been shown to improve the activity of the product, other Bt-based insecticides have been developed in which the spore is absent. The most notable of these are transgenic plants expressing just the insect toxin gene from the bacterium. This paper will discuss these developments, and the advantages and disadvantages of having the spore present.

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