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Glia. 2006 Nov 1;54(6):526-35.

Stimulation of TLR9 with CpG ODN enhances apoptosis of glioma and prolongs the survival of mice with experimental brain tumors.

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Section of Neurosurgery, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA.


Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize a set of conserved molecular structures, so called pathogen-associated molecular patterns, which allow them to sense and initiate innate and adaptive immune responses. In this study, we examined the expression of TLRs in both human and murine glioma. We then analyzed the change in TLR expression after treatment with synthetic phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) containing unmethylated CpG dinucleotides (CpG ODNs), strong activators of both innate and adaptive immunity. In addition, we investigated the in vivo effect of CpG injection into C57BL/6 mice implanted with syngeneic GL261 glioma. Our results indicate that TLR9 is overexpressed in human and murine glioma cell lines and CpG stimulation prolongs the survival of mice with experimental brain tumors. CpGs induce TLR9 down-regulation, followed by apoptosis of GL261 cells in vitro as well as in vivo. Furthermore, the effects of CpG stimulation appear to enhance the antigen presenting capacity of microglia, shift the immune response toward CD8(+) T cells, and decrease the number of CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells. Taken together, our data support the role of CpG in glioma immunotherapy and provide a rationale for further clinical development of CpG therapy in patients with malignant glioma.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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