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Pharmacokinetics of moxifloxacin in rabbits after intravenous, subcutaneous and a long-acting poloxamer 407 gel formulation administration.

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Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Murcia, Campus de Espinardo, 30.071-Murcia, Spain.


The pharmacokinetics (PK) of moxifloxacin in healthy white New Zealand rabbits was studied following intravenous (IV) and subcutaneous (SC) administration routes as well as a SC long-acting poloxamer 407 gel formulation (SC-P407). Moxifloxacin concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography assay with fluorescence detection. Mean half-life for IV, SC and SC-P407 routes was 2.15, 5.41 and 11.09 h. Clearance value after IV dosing was 0.78 l/kg/h. After SC administration, the mean absolute bioavailability was 117% and the C(max) was 1.61 +/- 0.49 mg/l. After SC-P407 administration, the bioavailability was 44% and the C(max) 1.83 was +/-0.62 mg/l. No adverse effects were observed in any of the rabbits following IV, SC and SC-P407 administration of moxifloxacin. Minimal inhibitory concentrations of moxifloxacin against different strains of Staphylococcus aureus from different european countries were used to compute the main pharmacodynamic (PD) surrogate markers of efficacy. The high tolerability of this SC-P407 formulation and the favourable PK behaviour such as the long half-life, acceptable bioavailability and excellent PK-PD ratios achieved indicate that it is likely to be effective in rabbits.

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