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Eur J Appl Physiol. 2006 Oct;98(3):263-9. Epub 2006 Aug 9.

Response of antioxidant defences to oxidative stress induced by prolonged exercise: antioxidant enzyme gene expression in lymphocytes.

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Departament de Biologia Fonamental i Ciències de la Salut, Edifici Guillem Colom, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Crta de Valldemossa, Palma de Mallorca, Balears, Spain.


The response of lymphocyte and plasma antioxidant defences to a prolonged exercise as a cycling stage in a professional race was analysed. Antioxidant enzyme activities and gene expression, carbonyl derivative and MDA levels were determined in lymphocytes. Plasma levels of vitamin E, carotenes, protein carbonyl derivatives and the test d-Roms were measured. Significant increases in plasmatic carbonyls and in the test d-Roms were observed after the cycling stage. No significant differences were found in the lymphocyte MDA and carbonyl derivative levels. A significant increase was found in plasma vitamin E concentration after the cycling stage; however, the lymphocyte vitamin E concentration did not change. Significant increases were observed in lymphocyte total superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and in the levels of CuZn-SOD and Mn-SOD isoenzymes. The moderate levels of oxidative stress in the lymphocyte induced a cellular adaptation to exercise enough to counteract the negative effects of oxidative stress.

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