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J Gen Virol. 2006 Sep;87(Pt 9):2563-9.

Open reading frame 132 of Helicoverpa armigera nucleopolyhedrovirus encodes a functional per os infectivity factor (PIF-2).

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State Key Laboratory of Virology and Joint Laboratory of Invertebrate Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071, PR China.


Open reading frame 132 (Ha132) of Helicoverpa armigera nucleopolyhedrovirus (HearNPV) is a homologue of per os infectivity factor 2 (pif-2) of Spodoptera exigua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus. Sequence analysis indicated that Ha132 encoded a protein of 383 aa with a predicted molecular mass of 44.5 kDa. Alignment of HA132 and its baculovirus homologues revealed that HA132 was highly conserved among baculoviruses, with 14 absolutely conserved cysteine residues. RT-PCR indicated that Ha132 was first transcribed at 24 h post-infection. Western blot analysis showed that a 43 kDa band was detectable in HearNPV-infected HzAM1 cells from 36 h post-infection. Western blots also indicated that HA132 was a component of the occlusion-derived virus, but not of budded virus. Deletion of Ha132 from HearNPV abolished per os infectivity, but had no effect on the infectivity of the budded virus phenotype.

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