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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Aug 15;103(33):12487-92. Epub 2006 Aug 4.

Involvement of Toll-like receptor 5 in the recognition of flagellated bacteria.

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  • 1Centre d'Immunologie de Marseille-Luminy, Université de la Méditerranée, Case 906, 13288 Marseille, France.


Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are key components of the immune system that detect microbial infection and trigger antimicrobial host defense responses. TLR5 is a sensor for monomeric flagellin, which is a component of bacterial flagella known to be a virulence factor. In this study we generated TLR5-deficient mice and investigated the role of TLR5 signaling in the detection of flagellin and antibacterial immune responses to Salmonella typhimurium and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We found that TLR5 is essential for the recognition of bacterial flagellin both in vivo and ex vivo. TLR5 contribution to antibacterial host response to i.p. infection with S. typhimurium or intranasal administration of P. aeruginosa may be masked by TLR4 or other sensing mechanisms. By using radiation bone marrow chimera, we showed that upon i.p. injection of flagellin immune responses are mediated by lymphoid cells, whereas resident cells are required for the initiation of response upon intranasal flagellin administration. These results suggest that flagellin recognition in different organs is mediated by distinct TLR5-expressing cells and provide insights into the cooperation of the TLR5 and TLR4 signaling pathways used by the innate immune system in the recognition of bacterial pathogens.

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