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Plant J. 2006 Sep;47(5):811-26. Epub 2006 Aug 2.

Mapped Ds/T-DNA launch pads for functional genomics in barley.

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Department of Plant-Microbe Interactions, Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research, Carl-von-Linné Weg 10, 50829 Cologne, Germany.


A system for targeted gene tagging and local saturation mutagenesis based on maize transposable elements (Ac/Ds) was developed in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). We generated large numbers of transgenic barley lines carrying a single copy of the non-autonomous maize Ds element at defined positions in the genome. Independent Ds lines were either generated by activating Ds elements in existing single-copy lines after crossing with AcTPase-expressing plants or by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Genomic DNA flanking Ds and T-DNA insertion sites from over 200 independent lines was isolated and sequenced, and was used for a sequence based mapping strategy in a barley reference population. More than 100 independent Ds insertion sites were mapped and can be used as launch pads for future targeted tagging of genes in the vicinity of the insertion sites. Sequence analysis of Ds and T-DNA flanking regions revealed a sevenfold preference of both mutagens for insertion into non-redundant, gene-containing regions of the barley genome. However, whilst transposed Ds elements preferentially inserted adjacent to regions with a high number of predicted and experimentally validated matrix attachment regions (nuclear MARs), this was not the case for T-DNA integration sites. These findings and an observed high transposition frequency from mapped launch pads demonstrate the future potential of gene tagging for functional genomics and gene discovery in barley.

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