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Genetics. 2006 Oct;174(2):679-91. Epub 2006 Aug 3.

Ltv1 is required for efficient nuclear export of the ribosomal small subunit in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

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Department of Biological, Chemical and Physical Sciences, Roosevelt University, Chicago, IL 60605, USA.


In eukaryotes, 40S and 60S ribosomal subunits are assembled in the nucleus and exported to the cytoplasm independently of one another. Nuclear export of the 60S requires the adapter protein Nmd3, but no analogous adapter has been identified for the 40S. Ltv1 is a nonessential, nonribosomal protein that is required for 40S subunit biogenesis in yeast. Cells lacking LTV1 grow slowly, are hypersensitive to inhibitors of protein synthesis, and produce about half as many 40S subunits as do wild-type cells. Ltv1 interacts with Crm1, co-sediments in sucrose gradients with 43S/40S subunits, and copurifies with late 43S particles. Here we show that Ltv1 shuttles between nucleus and cytoplasm in a Crm1-dependent manner and that it contains a functional NES that is sufficient to direct the export of an NLS-containing reporter. Small subunit export is reduced in Deltaltv1 mutants, as judged by the altered distribution of the 5'-ITS1 rRNA and the 40S ribosomal protein RpS3. Finally, we show a genetic interaction between LTV1 and YRB2, a gene that encodes a Ran-GTP-, Crm1-binding protein that facilitates the small subunit export. We propose that Ltv1 functions as one of several possible adapter proteins that link the nuclear export machinery to the small subunit.

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