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J Commun Disord. 2006 Sep-Oct;39(5):350-65. Epub 2006 Aug 2.

Cortical interactions underlying the production of speech sounds.

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Department of Cognitive and Neural Systems, Boston University, 677 Beacon Street, Boston, MA 02215, USA.


Speech production involves the integration of auditory, somatosensory, and motor information in the brain. This article describes a model of speech motor control in which a feedforward control system, involving premotor and primary motor cortex and the cerebellum, works in concert with auditory and somatosensory feedback control systems that involve both sensory and motor cortical areas. New speech sounds are learned by first storing an auditory target for the sound, then using the auditory feedback control system to control production of the sound in early repetitions. Repeated production of the sound leads to tuning of feedforward commands which eventually supplant the feedback-based control signals. Although parts of the model remain speculative, it accounts for a wide range of kinematic, acoustic, and neuroimaging data collected during speech production and provides a framework for investigating communication disorders that involve malfunction of the cerebral cortex and interconnected subcortical structures.


Readers will be able to: (1) describe several types of learning that occur in the sensory-motor system during babbling and early speech, (2) identify three neural control subsystems involved in speech production, (3) identify regions of the brain involved in monitoring auditory and somatosensory feedback during speech production, and (4) identify regions of the brain involved in feedforward control of speech.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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