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Int J Urol. 2006 Jul;13(7):968-70.

Foreskin development before adolescence in 2149 schoolboys.

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Department of Urology, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan.



We examined the external genitalia of 2149 elementary schoolboys in the suburban area of Taichung in Taiwan for an understanding of foreskin development before adolescence.


The study's subjects comprised 692 first-grade boys, 725 fourth-grade boys, and 732 seventh-grade boys. The foreskin's condition was classified as: type I (normal prepuce), type II (adhesion of prepuce), type III (partial phimosis), type IV (phimosis) and type V (circumcised foreskin). Other abnormalities of the genitalia also were recorded. All of the examinations were performed by the same urologist.


The incidence of type I foreskin was 8.2% in first-grade boys, 21.0% in fourth-grade boys, and 58.1% in seventh-grade boys. The incidence of type IV foreskin was 17.1% in first-grade boys, 9.7% in fourth-grade boys, and 1.2% in seventh-grade boys. Only one boy had balanoposthitis. Other abnormalities included inguinal hernia (n = 2), hydrocele (n = 12), cryptorchitism (n = 8), varicocele (n = 22), and subcoronal-type hypospadia (n = 1).


Physiological phimosis declines with age. Most boys with phimosis in this study did not require treatment.

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