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J Biomed Mater Res A. 2006 Nov;79(2):338-48.

Online measurement of oxygen consumption by goat bone marrow stromal cells in a combined cell-seeding and proliferation perfusion bioreactor.

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Institute for Biomedical Technology, Twente University, Department Bilthoven, Prof. Bronkhorstlaan 10-D, 3723 MB, Bilthoven, The Netherlands.


In an effort to produce clinically useful volumes of tissue engineered bone products, a direct perfusion bioreactor system was developed. Perfusion flow rate, flow direction, and the position of the bioreactor are factors that influenced the amounts and homogeneity of the cells seeded on the scaffold surface. Goat bone marrow stromal cells (GBMSCs) were dynamically seeded and proliferated in this system in relevant volumes (10 cm(3)) of small-sized macroporous biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) scaffolds (2-6 mm). Cell load and cell distribution were shown using Methylene Blue block staining, and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) staining was used to demonstrate the viability of the cells. Although cells were not distributed homogenously after cell seeding, the scaffolds were covered with a viable, homogeneous cell layer after 25 days of cultivation. The hybrid structures became interconnected, and a dense layer of extracellular matrix formed on and in the scaffolds. Online oxygen measurements during cultivation were correlated with proliferating GBMSCs. It was shown that the oxygen consumption could possibly be used to estimate GBMSC population doubling times during growth in this bioreactor system. On the basis of our results, we conclude that a direct perfusion bioreactor system is capable of seeding and proliferating GBMSCs on BCP ceramic scaffolds that can be monitored online during cultivation.

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