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Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006 Aug;47(8):3573-8.

Administration of novel dyes for intraocular surgery: an in vivo toxicity animal study.

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Department of Pathophysiology of Vision and Neuro-Ophthalmology, University Eye Hospital, Tübingen, Germany.



To investigate the effect of intravitreal injections of new vital dyes on the retina, the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and the choroid in an in vivo rat model.


Rats were injected intravitreally with four dyes: light-green SF yellowish (LGSF), copper(II)phthalocyanine-tetrasulfonic acid (E68), bromphenol blue (BPB), and Chicago blue (CB) dissolved in physiologic saline solution (PSS) at concentrations of 0.5% and 0.02%. PSS served as the control. Additional animals were treated with single injections of 0.5%, 0.02%, 0.002%, and 0.0002% ICG or 0.002% E68 into one eye. Adverse effects on anterior and posterior segments were evaluated by slit lamp biomicroscopy and ophthalmoscopy. Retinal toxicity was assessed by histology and retinal ganglion cell (RGC) quantification 7 days after dye administration.


Eyes treated with 0.5% E68, 0.5% ICG, or 0.5% CB showed discrete staining of both cornea and lens not seen at lower concentrations or with other dyes. Histology revealed dose-dependent reactions after E68 administration. ICG 0.5% induced significant thinning of inner retinal layers compared with PSS. ICG 0.02% caused focal degenerative changes of the outer retina in three of seven eyes, whereas 0.002% and 0.0002% ICG did not. CB led to heterogeneous morphologic alterations. BPB- or LGSF-treated eyes showed normal retinal morphology. ICG at all tested concentrations induced significant RGC loss, as did E68 at 0.5% but not at lower concentrations.


BPB or LGSF produced no significantly detectable toxic effects on the retina in vivo. The safety of these new dyes must be established in other models and/or in preclinical studies before the clinical use of any of these dyes.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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