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Diabetes. 2006 Aug;55(8):2318-23.

Paradoxical stimulation of glucagon secretion by high glucose concentrations.

Author information

1
Department of Clinical Science, Clinical Research Center, Malmö University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden.

Abstract

Hypersecretion of glucagon contributes to the dysregulation of glucose homeostasis in diabetes. To clarify the underlying mechanism, glucose-regulated glucagon secretion was studied in mouse pancreatic islets and clonal hamster In-R1-G9 glucagon-releasing cells. Apart from the well-known inhibition of secretion with maximal effect around 7 mmol/l glucose, we discovered that mouse islets showed paradoxical stimulation of glucagon release at 25-30 mmol/l and In-R1-G9 cells at 12-20 mmol/l sugar. Whereas glucagon secretion in the absence of glucose was inhibited by hyperpolarization with diazoxide, this agent tended to further enhance secretion stimulated by high concentrations of the sugar. Because U-shaped dose-response relationships for glucose-regulated glucagon secretion were observed in normal islets and in clonal glucagon-releasing cells, both the inhibitory and stimulatory components probably reflect direct effects on the alpha-cells. Studies of isolated mouse alpha-cells indicated that glucose inhibited glucagon secretion by lowering the cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration. However, stimulation of glucagon release by high glucose concentrations did not require elevation of Ca(2+), indicating involvement of novel mechanisms in glucose regulation of glucagon secretion. A U-shaped dose-response relationship for glucose-regulated glucagon secretion may explain why diabetic patients with pronounced hyperglycemia display paradoxical hyperglucagonemia.

PMID:
16873696
DOI:
10.2337/db06-0080
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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