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J NeuroAIDS. 2004;2(4):33-43.

Transforming growth factor beta and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 are elevated in cerebrospinal fluid of immunocompromised patients with HIV-1 infection.

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University of Tennessee Medical Center, 1924 Alcoa Highway, Knoxville, TN 37920, and the Nashville Veterans Administration Medical Center, 37232, USA.


Monocyte infiltration of the brain is central to the pathogenesis of HIV-1 encephalitis. The cytokines promoting recruitment of monocytes into the central nervous system during HIV-1 infection are not established. In this study, we evaluated human cerebrospinal fluid from patients with HIV-1 infection for transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFbeta1) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) using a quantitative sandwich enzyme-linked immunoassays. Cytokine levels were compared to those from patients with multiple sclerosis and normal controls. In cerebrospinal fluid of patients with HIV-1 infection and CD4<500 cells/mm3, both TGFbeta1 and MCP-1 were significantly elevated compared to those with CD4>500 cells/mm3, multiple sclerosis, and controls.

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