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Occup Med (Lond). 2006 Aug;56(5):307-11.

Nanomedicines and nanotoxicology: some physiological principles.

Author information

1
School of Pharmacy, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK. m.garnett@nottingham.ac.uk

Abstract

Nanosized materials have been investigated as potential medicines for several decades. Consequently, a great deal of work has been conducted on how to exploit constructs of this size range in a beneficial way. Similarly, a number of the consequences from the use of these materials have already been considered. Nanosized materials do behave differently to low-molecular-weight drugs, the biological properties of nanomaterials being mainly dependent on relevant physiology and anatomy, which are reviewed in this article. Biodistribution, movement of materials through tissues, phagocytosis, opsonization and endocytosis of nanosized materials are all likely to have an impact on potential toxicity. In turn these processes are most likely to depend on the nanoparticle surface. Evidence from the literature is considered which suggests that our understanding of these areas is incomplete, and that biodistribution to specific sites can occur for nanoparticles with particular characteristics. However, our current knowledge does indicate which areas are of concern and deserve further investigation to understand how individual nanoparticles behave and what toxicity may be expected from them.

PMID:
16868128
DOI:
10.1093/occmed/kql052
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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