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Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2006 Jul;70(7):1688-95.

Characterization of copper-inducible promoters regulated by CpxA/CpxR in Escherichia coli.

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Department of Advanced Bioscience, Kinki University, Nakamachi, Nara 631-8505, Japan.


The copper stimulon in Escherichia coli consists of four regulons, the CueR-, CusS/CusR-, CpxA/CpxR-, and YedV/YedW regulons. E. coli mutants defective in cpxRA showed higher sensitivity to copper than the wild type. A total of 15 promoters were found to be induced in E. coli culture upon exposure to copper in a CpxA/CpxR-dependent manner. After gel-shift and DNase I foot-printing analyses, a conserved tandem repeat of pentanucleotide sequence, GTAAA(N)(4-8)GTAAA, with a conserved A of 4-bp upstream of each pentamer, was identified to be the CpxR-binding site. The difference in the orientation and location of the CpxR box is discussed with respect to the regulation mechanism among CpxR-regulon genes.

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