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Neurochem Res. 1991 Mar;16(3):243-9.

Cofactor interactions and the regulation of glutamate decarboxylase activity.

Author information

1
Wadsworth Center for Laboratories and Research, New York State Department of Health, Albany 12201-0509.

Abstract

More than 50% of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) in brain is present as apoenzyme. Recent work has opened the possibility that apoGAD can be studied in brain by labeling with radioactive cofactor. Such studies would be aided by a compound that inhibits specific binding. One possibility is 4-deoxy-pyridoxine 5'-phosphate, a close structural analog of the cofactor pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. The effects of deoxypyridoxine-P on the cyclic series of reactions that interconverts apo- and holoGAD was investigated and found to be consistent with simple competitive inhibition of the activation of apoGAD by pyridoxal-P. As expected from the cycle GAD was inactivated when incubated with glutamate and deoxypyridoxine-P even though cofactor was present, but no inactivation was observed with deoxypyridoxine-P in the absence of glutamate. Deoxypyridoxine-P also stabilized apoGAD against heat denaturation. These effects were quantitatively accounted for by a kinetic model of the apo-holoGAD cycle. Deoxypyridoxine-P inhibited the labeling by [32P]pyridoxal-P of GAD isolated from rat brain. Hippocampal extracts were labeled with [32P]pyridoxal-P and analyzed by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Remarkably few bands were strongly labeled. The major labeled band (at 63 kDa) corresponded to one of the forms of GAD. Other strongly-labeled bands were observed at 65 kDa (corresponding to the higher molecular weight form of GAD) and at 69--72 kDa. Labeling of the 63- and 65-kDa bands was inhibited by deoxypyridoxine-P, but the 69-72 kDa bands were unaffected, suggesting that the latter were non-specifically labeled. The results suggest that the 63-kDa form of GAD makes up the majority of apoGAD in hippocampus.

PMID:
1685767
DOI:
10.1007/bf00966087
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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