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J Phys Chem B. 2005 May 26;109(20):9980-8.

Directional fluorescence spectra of laser dye in opal and inverse opal photonic crystals.

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Complex Photonic Systems (COPS), MESA Research Institute and Department of Science and Technology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands.


We have investigated the fluorescence from R6G dye molecules embedded in fcc photonic crystals with a large range of lattice parameters. Both polystyrene opals and alumina inverse opals are studied, allowing us to compare direct and inverted structures. We observe clear stop bands in the fluorescence spectra, whose center positions, widths, and depths are analyzed and compared to stop bands from reflectivity measurements. In the frequency range of first-order stop gaps, the measured stop band centers and widths agree well with theoretical predictions. The depths are interpreted in terms of the mean free path (disorder) and the Bragg attenuation length (order). We observe intriguing enhanced emission at the blue side of the stop bands, which is attributed to the escape of diffuse light from the photonic crystal (related to both order and disorder). We perform the first experiments in the range of second-order stop gaps, which is the regime where the photonic band gap is anticipated. We observe complex multiple-Bragg features that correlate favorably with reflectivity peaks.

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