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J Med Virol. 2006 Sep;78(9):1232-40.

Frequent detection of human rhinoviruses, paramyxoviruses, coronaviruses, and bocavirus during acute respiratory tract infections.

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Queensland Paediatric Infectious Diseases Laboratory, Sir Albert Sakzewski Virus Research Centre, Royal Children's Hospital, Queensland, Australia.


Viruses are the major cause of pediatric acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI) and yet many suspected cases of infection remain uncharacterized. We employed 17 PCR assays and retrospectively screened 315 specimens selected by season from a predominantly pediatric hospital-based population. Before the Brisbane respiratory virus research study commenced, one or more predominantly viral pathogens had been detected in 15.2% (n = 48) of all specimens. The Brisbane study made an additional 206 viral detections, resulting in the identification of a microbe in 67.0% of specimens. After our study, the majority of microbes detected were RNA viruses (89.9%). Overall, human rhinoviruses (HRVs) were the most frequently identified target (n = 140) followed by human adenoviruses (HAdVs; n = 25), human metapneumovirus (HMPV; n = 18), human bocavirus (HBoV; n = 15), human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV; n = 12), human coronaviruses (HCoVs; n = 11), and human herpesvirus-6 (n = 11). HRVs were the sole microbe detected in 37.8% (n = 31) of patients with suspected lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI). Genotyping of the HRV VP4/VP2 region resulted in a proposed subdivision of HRV type A into sublineages A1 and A2. Most of the genotyped HAdV strains were found to be type C. This study describes the high microbial burden imposed by HRVs, HMPV, HRSV, HCoVs, and the newly identified virus, HBoV on a predominantly paediatric hospital population with suspected acute respiratory tract infections and proposes a new formulation of viral targets for future diagnostic research studies.

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