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Proteomics. 2006 Aug;6(16):4565-85.

Proteome signatures for stress and starvation in Bacillus subtilis as revealed by a 2-D gel image color coding approach.

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Institut für Mikrobiologie, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany.


In this paper we have defined proteome signatures of Bacillus subtilis in response to heat, salt, peroxide, and superoxide stress as well as after starvation for ammonium, tryptophan, glucose, and phosphate using the 2-D gel-based approach. In total, 79 stress-induced and 155 starvation-induced marker proteins were identified including 50% that are not expressed in the vegetative proteome. Fused proteome maps and a color coding approach have been used to define stress-specific regulons that are involved in specific adaptative functions (HrcA for heat, PerR and Fur for oxidative stress, RecA for peroxide, CymR and S-box for superoxide stress). In addition, starvation-specific regulons are defined that are involved in the uptake or utilization of alternative nutrient sources (TnrA, sigmaL/BkdR for ammonium; tryptophan-activated RNA-binding attenuation protein for tryptophan; CcpA, CcpN, sigmaL/AcoR for glucose; PhoPR for phosphate starvation). The general stress or starvation proteome signatures include the CtsR, Spx, sigmaL/RocR, sigmaB, sigmaH, CodY, sigmaF, and sigmaE regulons. Among these, the Spx-dependent oxidase NfrA was induced by all stress conditions indicating stress-induced protein damages. Finally, a subset of sigmaH-dependent proteins (sporulation response regulator, YvyD, YtxH, YisK, YuxI, YpiB) and the CodY-dependent aspartyl phosphatase RapA were defined as general starvation proteins that indicate the transition to stationary phase caused by starvation.

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