Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Vet Pathol. 2006 Jul;43(4):471-83.

Hyperplastic and neoplastic lesions of the mammary gland in macaques.

Author information

  • 1Department of Pathology/Section on Comparative Medicine, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27157-1040, USA.


Macaques provide an important animal model for the study of hormonal agents and their effects on risk biomarkers for breast cancer. A common criticism of this model is that spontaneous breast cancer has rarely been described in these animals. In this report, we characterize 35 mammary gland lesions ranging from ductal hyperplasia to carcinoma in situ and invasive ductal carcinoma in cynomolgus and rhesus macaques. Based on a retrospective analysis, we estimated the lifetime incidence of mammary gland neoplasia in aged female macaques to be about 6%. Hyperplastic lesions (n = 19) occurred segmentally along ducts and included such features as columnar alteration, micropapillary atypia, and fibroadenomatous change. In situ carcinomas (n = 8) included solid, comedo, cribriform, and micropapillary elements, encompassing 4 of the major architectural patterns seen in human lesions. Invasive ductal carcinomas (n = 8) were generally solid, with prominent central necrosis and mineralization, often on a background of micropapillary ductal hyperplasia and in situ carcinoma. Cytologic changes of invasive lesions included increased mitoses, nuclear pleomorphism, extensive microinvasion, and stromal desmoplasia. Axillary lymph-node metastases were confirmed in 5 of the 8 invasive carcinomas. On immunohistochemistry, intraductal and invasive carcinomas had increased Ki67/MIB1 and HER2 expression and selective loss of estrogen and progesterone receptors. These findings suggest that breast cancer is an underreported lesion in macaques and highlight unique morphologic and molecular similarities in breast cancer between human and macaque species.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Atypon
    Loading ...
    Support Center