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1.
Schizophr Res. 2006 Sep;86(1-3):1-14. Epub 2006 Jul 13.

Schizophrenia susceptibility genes converge on interlinked pathways related to glutamatergic transmission and long-term potentiation, oxidative stress and oligodendrocyte viability.

Author information

1
Hastings, East Sussex, UK. chris_car@yahoo.com

Abstract

Over 130 genes have been associated with schizophrenia in genetic studies. None of these has reached a sufficient level of confidence to be accepted as a universal susceptibility gene and problems of replicability suggest that many may be false positives. Nevertheless, these genes can be grouped into distinct families related to glutamate transmission (in particular related to NMDA receptor function), the control of synaptic plasticity, dopaminergic transmission, oxidative stress, glutathione and quinone metabolism and oligodendrocyte viability. These families mirror the processes disrupted in the schizophrenic brain and certain gene families can be linked together to form a clearly defined signalling cascade involved in the phenomenon of NMDA receptor-dependent long-term potentiation and synaptic plasticity, that may be interconnected with oligodendrocyte and oxidative stress-related pathways. Many of the protein products of these genes interact with each other, forming complex integrated networks. Certain high-interest genes (for example DISC1, NRG1, COMT) may exert multiple effects on different areas of these pathways, while others exert more specific effects on certain branches. The convergence of a large number of genes on a definable signaling network raises the possibility of numerous interactions between gene candidates, and suggests that a targeted multigenic pathway approach would be useful in gene association studies.

PMID:
16842972
DOI:
10.1016/j.schres.2006.05.023
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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2.
Neurochem Int. 2007 Jan;50(1):12-38. Epub 2006 Sep 12.

Convergence of genes implicated in Alzheimer's disease on the cerebral cholesterol shuttle: APP, cholesterol, lipoproteins, and atherosclerosis.

Author information

1
chris_car@yahoo.com

Abstract

Polymorphic genes associated with Alzheimer's disease (see ) delineate a clearly defined pathway related to cerebral and peripheral cholesterol and lipoprotein homoeostasis. They include all of the key components of a glia/neurone cholesterol shuttle including cholesterol binding lipoproteins APOA1, APOA4, APOC1, APOC2, APOC3, APOD, APOE and LPA, cholesterol transporters ABCA1, ABCA2, lipoprotein receptors LDLR, LRP1, LRP8 and VLDLR, and the cholesterol metabolising enzymes CYP46A1 and CH25H, whose oxysterol products activate the liver X receptor NR1H2 and are metabolised to esters by SOAT1. LIPA metabolises cholesterol esters, which are transported by the cholesteryl ester transport protein CETP. The transcription factor SREBF1 controls the expression of most enzymes of cholesterol synthesis. APP is involved in this shuttle as it metabolises cholesterol to 7-betahydroxycholesterol, a substrate of SOAT1 and HSD11B1, binds to APOE and is tethered to LRP1 via APPB1, APBB2 and APBB3 at the cytoplasmic domain and via LRPAP1 at the extracellular domain. APP cleavage products are also able to prevent cholesterol binding to APOE. BACE cleaves both APP and LRP1. Gamma-secretase (PSEN1, PSEN2, NCSTN) cleaves LRP1 and LRP8 as well as APP and their degradation products control transcription factor TFCP2, which regulates thymidylate synthase (TS) and GSK3B expression. GSK3B is known to phosphorylate the microtubule protein tau (MAPT). Dysfunction of this cascade, carved out by genes implicated in Alzheimer's disease, may play a major role in its pathology. Many other genes associated with Alzheimer's disease affect cholesterol or lipoprotein function and/or have also been implicated in atherosclerosis, a feature of Alzheimer's disease, and this duality may well explain the close links between vascular and cerebral pathology in Alzheimer's disease. The definition of many of these genes as risk factors is highly contested. However, when polymorphic susceptibility genes belong to the same signaling pathway, the risk associated with multigenic disease is better related to the integrated effects of multiple polymorphisms of genes within the same pathway than to variants in any single gene [Wu, X., Gu, J., Grossman, H.B., Amos, C.I., Etzel, C., Huang, M., Zhang, Q., Millikan, R.E., Lerner, S., Dinney, C.P., Spitz, M.R., 2006. Bladder cancer predisposition: a multigenic approach to DNA-repair and cell-cycle-control genes. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 78, 464-479.]. Thus, the fact that Alzheimer's disease susceptibility genes converge on a clearly defined signaling network has important implications for genetic association studies.

PMID:
16973241
DOI:
10.1016/j.neuint.2006.07.007
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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3.
Neurochem Int. 2007 Feb;50(3):461-90. Epub 2007 Jan 18.

Multiple genes and factors associated with bipolar disorder converge on growth factor and stress activated kinase pathways controlling translation initiation: implications for oligodendrocyte viability.

Author information

1
chris_car@yahoo.com

Abstract

Famine and viral infection, as well as interferon therapy have been reported to increase the risk of developing bipolar disorder. In addition, almost 100 polymorphic genes have been associated with this disease. Several form most of the components of a phosphatidyl-inositol signalling/AKT1 survival pathway (PIK3C3, PIP5K2A, PLCG1, SYNJ1, IMPA2, AKT1, GSK3B, TCF4) which is activated by growth factors (BDNF, NRG1) and also by NMDA receptors (GRIN1, GRIN2A, GRIN2B). Various other protein products of genes associated with bipolar disorder either bind to or are affected by phosphatidyl-inositol phosphate products of this pathway (ADBRK2, HIP1R, KCNQ2, RGS4, WFS1), are associated with its constituent elements (BCR, DUSP6, FAT, GNAZ) or are downstream targets of this signalling cascade (DPYSL2, DRD3, GAD1, G6PD, GCH1, KCNQ2, NOS3, SLC6A3, SLC6A4, SST, TH, TIMELESS). A further pathway relates to endoplasmic reticulum-stress (HSPA5, XBP1), caused by problems in protein glycosylation (ALG9), growth factor receptor sorting (PIK3C3, HIP1R, SYBL1), or aberrant calcium homoeostasis (WFS1). Key processes relating to these pathways appear to be under circadian control (ARNTL, CLOCK, PER3, TIMELESS). DISC1 can also be linked to many of these pathways. The growth factor pathway promotes protein synthesis, while the endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway, and other stress pathways activated by viruses and cytokines (IL1B, TNF, Interferons), oxidative stress or starvation, all factors associated with bipolar disorder risk, shuts down protein synthesis via control of the EIF2 alpha and beta translation initiation complex. For unknown reasons, oligodendrocytes appear to be particularly prone to defects in the translation initiation complex (EIF2B) and the convergence of these environmental and genomic signalling pathways on this area might well explain their vulnerability in bipolar disorder.

PMID:
17239488
DOI:
10.1016/j.neuint.2006.11.009
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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4.
Schizophr Bull. 2007 Nov;33(6):1343-53. Epub 2007 Feb 27.

eIF2B and oligodendrocyte survival: where nature and nurture meet in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia?

Author information

1
chris_car@yahoo.com

Abstract

Bipolar disorder and schizophrenia share common chromosomal susceptibility loci and many risk-promoting genes. Oligodendrocyte cell loss and hypomyelination are common to both diseases. A number of environmental risk factors including famine, viral infection, and prenatal or childhood stress may also predispose to schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. In cells, related stressors (starvation, viruses, cytokines, oxidative, and endoplasmic reticulum stress) activate a series of eIF2-alpha kinases, which arrest protein synthesis via the eventual inhibition, by phosphorylated eIF2-alpha, of the translation initiation factor eIF2B. Growth factors increase protein synthesis via eIF2B activation and counterbalance this system. The control of protein synthesis by eIF2-alpha kinases is also engaged by long-term potentiation and repressed by long-term depression, mediated by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and metabotropic glutamate receptors. Many genes reportedly associated with both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder code for proteins within or associated with this network. These include NMDA (GRIN1, GRIN2A, GRIN2B) and metabotropic (GRM3, GRM4) glutamate receptors, growth factors (BDNF, NRG1), and many of their downstream signaling components or accomplices (AKT1, DAO, DAOA, DISC1, DTNBP1, DPYSL2, IMPA2, NCAM1, NOS1, NOS1AP, PIK3C3, PIP5K2A, PDLIM5, RGS4, YWHAH). They also include multiple gene products related to the control of the stress-responsive eIF2-alpha kinases (IL1B, IL1RN, MTHFR, TNF, ND4, NDUFV2, XBP1). Oligodendrocytes are particularly sensitive to defects in the eIF2B complex, mutations in which are responsible for vanishing white matter disease. The convergence of natural and genetic risk factors on this area in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia may help to explain the apparent vulnerability of this cell type in these conditions. This convergence may also help to reconcile certain arguments related to the importance of nature and nurture in the etiology of these psychiatric disorders. Both may affect common stress-related signaling pathways that dictate oligodendrocyte viability and synaptic plasticity.

PMID:
17329232
PMCID:
PMC2779884
DOI:
10.1093/schbul/sbm007
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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5.
Neurochem Int. 2008 May;52(6):920-34. doi: 10.1016/j.neuint.2007.11.003. Epub 2007 Nov 23.

Interactions between the products of the Herpes simplex genome and Alzheimer's disease susceptibility genes: relevance to pathological-signalling cascades.

Author information

1
chriscar@yahoo.com <chriscar@yahoo.com>

Abstract

The products of the Herpes simplex (HSV-1) genome interact with many Alzheimer's disease susceptibility genes or proteins. These in turn affect those of the virus. For example, HSV-1 binds to heparan sulphate proteoglycans (HSPG2), or alpha-2-macroglobulin (A2M), and enters cells via nectin receptors, which are cleaved by gamma-secretase (APH1B, PSEN1, PSEN2, PEN2, NCSTN). The virus also binds to blood-borne lipoproteins and apolipoprotein E (APOE) is able to modify its infectivity. Viral uptake is cholesterol- and lipid raft-dependent (DHCR24, HMGCR, FDPS, RAFTLIN, SREBF1). The virus is transported to the nucleus via the dynein and kinesin (KNS2) motors associated with the microtubule network (MAPT). Amyloid precursor protein (APP) plays a role in this transport. Nuclear export is mediated via disruption of the nuclear lamina and binding to LMNA. Herpes simplex activates kinases (CDC2 and casein kinase 2) whose substrates include APOE, APP, MAPT, PSEN2, and SREBF1. A viral protein is also able to delete mitochondrial DNA, a situation prevalent in Alzheimer's disease. The virus binds to the host transcription factors transcription factor CP2 (TFCP2) and POU2F1 that control many other genes associated with Alzheimer's disease. Viral latency is controlled by IL6 and IL1B and at different stages of its life cycle the virus can either promote or attenuate apoptosis via Fas and tumor necrosis factor pathways (FAS, TNF, DAPK1, PARP1). Viral evasion strategies include inhibition of the antigen processor TAP2, the production of an Fc immunoglobulin receptor mimic (FCER1G) and inhibition of the viral-activated kinase EIF2AK2. These and other host/viral interactions, targeted to certain Alzheimer's disease susceptibility genes, support the idea that some form of synergy between the pathogen and genetic factors may play a role in the pathology of late-onset Alzheimer's disease.

PMID:
18164103
DOI:
10.1016/j.neuint.2007.11.003
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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6.
Schizophr Bull. 2009 Nov;35(6):1163-82. doi: 10.1093/schbul/sbn054. Epub 2008 Jun 13.

Schizophrenia susceptibility genes directly implicated in the life cycles of pathogens: cytomegalovirus, influenza, herpes simplex, rubella, and Toxoplasma gondii.

Author information

1
176 Downs Road, Hastings, East Sussex, TN34 2DZ, UK. chris_car@yahoo.com

Abstract

Many genes implicated in schizophrenia can be related to glutamatergic transmission and neuroplasticity, oligodendrocyte function, and other families clearly related to neurobiology and schizophrenia phenotypes. Others appear rather to be involved in the life cycles of the pathogens implicated in the disease. For example, aspartylglucosaminidase (AGA), PLA2, SIAT8B, GALNT7, or B3GAT1 metabolize chemical ligands to which the influenza virus, herpes simplex, cytomegalovirus (CMV), rubella, or Toxoplasma gondii bind. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGR/EGFR) is used by the CMV to gain entry to cells, and a CMV gene codes for an interleukin (IL-10) mimic that binds the host cognate receptor, IL10R. The fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR1) is used by herpes simplex. KPNA3 and RANBP5 control the nuclear import of the influenza virus. Disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) controls the microtubule network that is used by viruses as a route to the nucleus, while DTNBP1, MUTED, and BLOC1S3 regulate endosomal to lysosomal routing that is also important in viral traffic. Neuregulin 1 activates ERBB receptors releasing a factor, EBP1, known to inhibit the influenza virus transcriptase. Other viral or bacterial components bind to genes or proteins encoded by CALR, FEZ1, FYN, HSPA1B, IL2, HTR2A, KPNA3, MED12, MED15, MICB, NQO2, PAX6, PIK3C3, RANBP5, or TP53, while the cerebral infectivity of the herpes simplex virus is modified by Apolipoprotein E (APOE). Genes encoding for proteins related to the innate immune response, including cytokine related (CCR5, CSF2RA, CSF2RB, IL1B, IL1RN, IL2, IL3, IL3RA, IL4, IL10, IL10RA, IL18RAP, lymphotoxin-alpha, tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF]), human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antigens (HLA-A10, HLA-B, HLA-DRB1), and genes involved in antigen processing (angiotensin-converting enzyme and tripeptidyl peptidase 2) are all concerned with defense against invading pathogens. Human microRNAs (Hsa-mir-198 and Hsa-mir-206) are predicted to bind to influenza, rubella, or poliovirus genes. Certain genes associated with schizophrenia, including those also concerned with neurophysiology, are intimately related to the life cycles of the pathogens implicated in the disease. Several genes may affect pathogen virulence, while the pathogens in turn may affect genes and processes relevant to the neurophysiology of schizophrenia. For such genes, the strength of association in genetic studies is likely to be conditioned by the presence of the pathogen, which varies in different populations at different times, a factor that may explain the heterogeneity that plagues such studies. This scenario also suggests that drugs or vaccines designed to eliminate the pathogens that so clearly interact with schizophrenia susceptibility genes could have a dramatic effect on the incidence of the disease.

PMID:
18552348
PMCID:
PMC2762619
DOI:
10.1093/schbul/sbn054
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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7.
Neurosci Lett. 2010 Oct 11;483(2):96-100. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2010.07.066. Epub 2010 Jul 30.

APP, APOE, complement receptor 1, clusterin and PICALM and their involvement in the herpes simplex life cycle.

Author information

1
chris_car@yahoo.com

Abstract

The major Alzheimer's disease susceptibility genes (APOE, clusterin, complement receptor 1 (CR1) and phosphatidylinositol binding clathrin assembly protein, PICALM) can be implicated directly (APOE, CR1) or indirectly (clusterin and PICALM) in the herpes simplex life cycle. The virus binds to proteoliposomes containing APOE or APOA1 and also to CR1, and both clusterin and PICALM are related to a mannose-6-phosphate receptor used by the virus for cellular entry and intracellular transport. PICALM also binds to a nuclear exportin used by the virus for nuclear egress. Clusterin and complement receptor 1 are both related to the complement pathways and play a general role in pathogen defence. In addition, the amyloid precursor protein APP is involved in herpes viral transport and gamma-secretase cleaves a number of receptors used by the virus for cellular entry. APOE, APOA1 and clusterin, or alpha 2-macroglobulin, insulysin and caspase 3, which also bind to the virus, are involved in beta-amyloid clearance or degradation, as are the viral binding complement components, C3 and CR1. There are multiple ways in which the products of key susceptibility genes might be able to modify the viral life cycle and in turn the virus interacts with key proteins involved in APP and beta-amyloid processing. These interactions support a role for the herpes simplex virus in Alzheimer's disease pathology and suggest that antiviral agents or vaccination might be considered as viable therapeutic strategies in Alzheimer's disease.

PMID:
20674675
DOI:
10.1016/j.neulet.2010.07.066
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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8.
Neurochem Int. 2011 Feb;58(3):301-20. doi: 10.1016/j.neuint.2010.12.003. Epub 2010 Dec 15.

Alzheimer's disease plaques and tangles: cemeteries of a pyrrhic victory of the immune defence network against herpes simplex infection at the expense of complement and inflammation-mediated neuronal destruction.

Author information

1
PolygenicPathways, Flat 4, 20 Upper Maze Hill, Saint Leonard's on Sea, East Sussex, TN38 0LG, UK. Chris_car@yahoo.com

Abstract

Plaques and tangles are highly and significantly enriched in herpes simplex (HSV-1) binding proteins (by 11 and 15 fold respectively (P<4.47466E-39) and 132/341 (39%) of the known HSV-1 binding partners or associates are present in these structures. The classes involved include the majority (63-100%) of the known HSV-1 host protein carriers and receptors, 85-91% of the viral associated proteins involved in endocytosis, intracellular transport and exocytosis and 71% of the host proteins associated with the HSV-1 virion. The viral associated proteins found in plaques or tangles trace out a complete itinerary of the virus from entry to exocytosis and the virus also binds to plaque or tangle components involved in apoptosis, DNA transcription, translation initiation, protein chaperoning, the ubiquitin/proteasome system and the immune network. Along this route, the virus deletes mitochondrial DNA, as seen in Alzheimer's disease, sequesters the neuroprotective peptide, ADNP, and interferes with key proteins related to amyloid precursor protein processing and signalling as well as beta-amyloid processing, microtubule stability and tau phosphorylation, the core pathologies of Alzheimer's disease. Amyloid-containing plaques or neurofibrillary tangles also contain a large number of complement, acute phase and immune-related proteins, and the presence of these pathogen defence related classes along with HSV-1 binding proteins suggests that amyloid plaques and tangles represent cemeteries for a battle between the virus and the host's defence network. The presence of the complement membrane attack complex in Alzheimer's disease neurones suggests that complement mediated neuronal lysis may be a consequence of this struggle. HSV-1 infection is known to increase beta-amyloid deposition and tau phosphorylation and also results in cortical and hippocampal neuronal loss, cerebral shrinkage and memory deficits in mice. This survey supports the contention that herpes simplex viral infection contributes to Alzheimer's disease, in genetically predisposed individuals. Genetic conditioning effects are likely to be important, as all of the major risk promoting genes in Alzheimer's disease (apolipoprotein E, clusterin, complement receptor 1 and the phosphatidylinositol binding clathrin assembly protein PICALM), and many lesser susceptibility genes, are related to the herpes simplex life cycle. 33 susceptibility genes are related to the immune system. Vaccination or antiviral agents and immune suppressants should therefore perhaps be considered as viable therapeutic options, prior to, or in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease.

PMID:
21167244
DOI:
10.1016/j.neuint.2010.12.003
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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9.
Int J Alzheimers Dis. 2010 Dec 29;2010:140539. doi: 10.4061/2010/140539.

Alzheimer's disease: a pathogenetic autoimmune disorder caused by herpes simplex in a gene-dependent manner.

Author information

1
Polygenic Pathways, Flat 4, 20 Upper Maze Hill, Saint Leonard's on Sea, East Sussex TN38 OLG, UK.

Abstract

Herpes simplex is implicated in Alzheimer's disease and viral infection produces Alzheimer's disease like pathology in mice. The virus expresses proteins containing short contiguous amino acid stretches (5-9aa "vatches" = viralmatches) homologous to APOE4, clusterin, PICALM, and complement receptor 1, and to over 100 other gene products relevant to Alzheimer's disease, which are also homologous to proteins expressed by other pathogens implicated in Alzheimer's disease. Such homology, reiterated at the DNA level, suggests that gene association studies have been tracking infection, as well as identifying key genes, demonstrating a role for pathogens as causative agents. Vatches may interfere with the function of their human counterparts, acting as dummy ligands, decoy receptors, or via interactome interference. They are often immunogenic, and antibodies generated in response to infection may target their human counterparts, producing protein knockdown, or generating autoimmune responses that may kill the neurones in which the human homologue resides, a scenario supported by immune activation in Alzheimer's disease. These data may classify Alzheimer's disease as an autoimmune disorder created by pathogen mimicry of key Alzheimer's disease-related proteins. It may well be prevented by vaccination and regular pathogen detection and elimination, and perhaps stemmed by immunosuppression or antibody adsorption-related therapies.

10.
Int J Alzheimers Dis. 2011;2011:501862. doi: 10.4061/2011/501862. Epub 2011 Dec 29.

Alzheimer's Disease: APP, Gamma Secretase, APOE, CLU, CR1, PICALM, ABCA7, BIN1, CD2AP, CD33, EPHA1, and MS4A2, and Their Relationships with Herpes Simplex, C. Pneumoniae, Other Suspect Pathogens, and the Immune System.

Author information

1
PolygenicPathways, Flat 2, 40 Baldslow Road, Hastings, East Sussex TN34 2EY, UK.

Abstract

Alzheimer's disease susceptibility genes, APP and gamma-secretase, are involved in the herpes simplex life cycle, and that of other suspect pathogens (C. pneumoniae, H. pylori, C. neoformans, B. burgdorferri, P. gingivalis) or immune defence. Such pathogens promote beta-amyloid deposition and tau phosphorylation and may thus be causative agents, whose effects are conditioned by genes. The antimicrobial effects of beta-amyloid, the localisation of APP/gamma-secretase in immunocompetent dendritic cells, and gamma secretase cleavage of numerous pathogen receptors suggest that this network is concerned with pathogen disposal, effects which may be abrogated by the presence of beta-amyloid autoantibodies in the elderly. These autoantibodies, as well as those to nerve growth factor and tau, also observed in Alzheimer's disease, may well be antibodies to pathogens, due to homology between human autoantigens and pathogen proteins. NGF or tau antibodies promote beta-amyloid deposition, neurofibrillary tangles, or cholinergic neuronal loss, and, with other autoantibodies, such as anti-ATPase, are potential agents of destruction, whose formation is dictated by sequence homology between pathogen and human proteins, and thus by pathogen strain and human genes. Pathogen elimination in the ageing population and removal of culpable autoantibodies might reduce the incidence and offer hope for a cure in this affliction.

11.
J Pathog. 2013;2013:965046. doi: 10.1155/2013/965046. Epub 2013 Mar 4.

Toxoplasmosis and Polygenic Disease Susceptibility Genes: Extensive Toxoplasma gondii Host/Pathogen Interactome Enrichment in Nine Psychiatric or Neurological Disorders.

Author information

1
Polygenic Pathways, Flat 2, 40 Baldslow Road, Hastings, East Sussex TN34 2EY, UK.

Abstract

Toxoplasma gondii is not only implicated in schizophrenia and related disorders, but also in Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease, cancer, cardiac myopathies, and autoimmune disorders. During its life cycle, the pathogen interacts with ~3000 host genes or proteins. Susceptibility genes for multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, childhood obesity, Parkinson's disease, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (P  from  8.01E - 05  (ADHD)  to  1.22E - 71) (multiple sclerosis), and autism (P = 0.013), but not anorexia or chronic fatigue are highly enriched in the human arm of this interactome and 18 (ADHD) to 33% (MS) of the susceptibility genes relate to it. The signalling pathways involved in the susceptibility gene/interactome overlaps are relatively specific and relevant to each disease suggesting a means whereby susceptibility genes could orient the attentions of a single pathogen towards disruption of the specific pathways that together contribute (positively or negatively) to the endophenotypes of different diseases. Conditional protein knockdown, orchestrated by T. gondii proteins or antibodies binding to those of the host (pathogen derived autoimmunity) and metabolite exchange, may contribute to this disruption. Susceptibility genes may thus be related to the causes and influencers of disease, rather than (and as well as) to the disease itself.

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