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Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2006 Jul 15;24(2):237-46.

Systematic review: sphincter of Oddi dysfunction--non-invasive diagnostic methods and long-term outcome after endoscopic sphincterotomy.

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Department of Gastroenterology, University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.



Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction is a benign, functional gastrointestinal disorder for which invasive endoscopic therapy with potential complications is often recommended.


To review the available evidence regarding the diagnostic accuracy of non-invasive methods that have been used to establish the diagnosis and to estimate the long-term outcome after endoscopic sphincterotomy.


A systematic review of English language articles and abstracts containing relevant terms was performed.


Non-invasive diagnostic methods are limited by their low sensitivity and specificity, especially in patients with Type III sphincter of Oddi dysfunction. Secretin-stimulated magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography appears to be useful in excluding other potential causes of symptoms, and morphine-provocated hepatobiliary scintigraphy also warrants further study. Approximately 85%, 69% and 37%, of patients with biliary Types I, II and III sphincter of Oddi dysfunction, respectively, experience sustained benefit after endoscopic sphincterotomy. In pancreatic sphincter of Oddi dysfunction, approximately 75% of patients report symptomatic improvement after pancreatic sphincterotomy, but the studies have been non-controlled and heterogeneous.


Patients with suspected sphincter of Oddi dysfunction, particularly those with biliary Type III, should be carefully evaluated before considering sphincter of Oddi manometry and endoscopic sphincterotomy. Further controlled trials are needed to justify the invasive management of patients with biliary Type III and pancreatic sphincter of Oddi dysfunction.

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