Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Jul 25;103(30):11195-200. Epub 2006 Jul 12.

Molecular evidence for deep evolutionary roots of bilaterality in animal development.

Author information

1
Kewalo Marine Laboratory, Pacific Bioscience Research Center, University of Hawaii, 41 Ahui Street, Honolulu, HI 96813, USA.

Abstract

Nearly all metazoans show signs of bilaterality, yet it is believed the bilaterians arose from radially symmetric forms hundreds of millions of years ago. Cnidarians (corals, sea anemones, and "jellyfish") diverged from other animals before the radiation of the Bilateria. They are diploblastic and are often characterized as being radially symmetrical around their longitudinal (oral-aboral) axis. We have studied the deployment of orthologs of a number of family members of developmental regulatory genes that are expressed asymmetrically during bilaterian embryogenesis from the sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis. The secreted TGF-beta genes Nv-dpp, Nv-BMP5-8, six TGF-beta antagonists (NvChordin, NvNoggin1, NvNoggin2, NvGremlin, NvFollistatin, and NvFollistatin-like), the homeodomain proteins NvGoosecoid (NvGsc) and NvGbx, and the secreted guidance factor, NvNetrin, were studied. NvDpp, NvChordin, NvNoggin1, NvGsc, and NvNetrin are expressed asymmetrically along the axis perpendicular to the oral-aboral axis, the directive axis. Furthermore, NvGbx, and NvChordin are expressed in restricted domains on the left and right sides of the body, suggesting that the directive axis is homologous with the bilaterian dorsal-ventral axis. The asymmetric expression of NvNoggin1 and NvGsc appear to be maintained by the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. The asymmetric expression of NvNoggin1, NvNetrin, and Hox orthologs NvAnthox7, NvAnthox8, NvAnthox1a, and NvAnthox6, in conjunction with the observation that NvNoggin1 is able to induce a secondary axis in Xenopus embryos argues that N. vectensis could possess antecedents of the organization of the bilaterian central nervous system.

PMID:
16837574
PMCID:
PMC1544064
DOI:
10.1073/pnas.0601257103
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for HighWire Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center