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Eur J Public Health. 2007 Apr;17(2):155-61. Epub 2006 Jul 12.

Factors associated with stages of cigarette smoking among Turkish youth.

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Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University 14 Marietta Street, NW, Atlanta, GA 30303-2813, USA.



This study examines prevalence and determinants of cigarette smoking among Turkish youth and transition among smoking stages.


Cross-sectional data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) obtained from 15 197 youth were used to study factors associated with various stages of cigarette smoking among Turkish youth.


Males and high-school students have higher odds of being susceptible to smoking compared with other non-smokers and higher odds of becoming established smokers. Exposure to parent, teacher, and peer smoking, anti-tobacco curricula, cigarette promotions, and perceived ease of access to cigarettes are all significant predictors of being susceptible to smoking and established smoking. Turkish youth who attribute positive traits to smokers are more likely to be susceptible to smoking and to become established smokers. Parental advice and media exposure to anti-tobacco messages were not significantly associated with becoming an established smoker.


The results reveal the importance of early prevention programmes, which should begin before high school, and targeting efforts towards male students and all students who are not yet smokers but susceptible to smoking. Findings also suggest that prevention policies that challenge the cultural perceptions of smokers among Turkish youth are needed.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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