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J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2006 Jul;17(7):754-9.

Age, size, and lead factors alone do not predict venous obstruction in children and young adults with transvenous lead systems.

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1
From the Department of Cardiology, Children's Hospital Boston, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Venous occlusion is a recognized complication of transvenous pacing, and lead cross-sectional area indexed to body surface area (BSA) has been used to predict venous obstruction in children.

OBJECTIVE:

The aim of this study was to identify the risk factors and incidence of angiographic venous obstruction after transvenous lead implantation in both children and young adults.

METHODS:

Contrast venography was obtained in 85 of 90 consecutive patients undergoing repeat pacemaker or ICD procedures from 2002 to 2004 at a single cardiac center. Venograms were graded as complete venous obstruction, significant partial obstruction (>70% with collaterals), or patent.

RESULTS:

The cohort had a median age of 15.0 years at implant and was divided into two age groups: 3-12 years (n = 35) and 13 years and over (n = 50). After a median interval of 6.5 years, complete obstruction was seen in 11 of 85 patients (13%) and partial obstruction in another 10 patients (12%). No significant differences were seen in the incidence of obstruction between the two age groups although younger patients had a larger lead indexed to BSA ratio (6.82 vs 5.05, P = 0.005). There were no significant differences between obstructed and nonobstructed patients in relation to age, size, growth, or lead factors.

CONCLUSION:

Transvenous lead systems implanted in young children have a similar incidence of venous occlusion compared to older patients. Furthermore, patient age, body size, and lead characteristics at implant do not clearly predict venous occlusion.

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