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Advances in facial reanimation.

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Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of California, Davis, 95817, USA.



Facial paralysis often has a significant emotional impact on patients. Along with the myriad of new surgical techniques in managing facial paralysis comes the challenge of selecting the most effective procedure for the patient. This review delineates common surgical techniques and reviews state-of-the-art techniques.


The options for dynamic reanimation of the paralyzed face must be examined in the context of several patient factors, including age, overall health, and patient desires. The best functional results are obtained with direct facial nerve anastomosis and interpositional nerve grafts. In long-standing facial paralysis, temporalis muscle transfer gives a dependable and quick result. Microvascular free tissue transfer is a reliable technique with reanimation potential whose results continue to improve as microsurgical expertise increases. Postoperative results can be improved with ancillary soft tissue procedures, as well as botulinum toxin.


The paper provides an overview of recent advances in facial reanimation, including preoperative assessment, surgical reconstruction options, and postoperative management.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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