Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Gastroenterology. 2006 Jul;131(1):142-52.

Carbonic anhydrases and mucosal vanilloid receptors help mediate the hyperemic response to luminal CO2 in rat duodenum.

Author information

Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, USA.



The duodenal mucosa is exposed to PCO(2) >200 mm Hg due to the luminal mixture of gastric acid with secreted bicarbonate, which augments mucosal protective mechanisms. We examined the hyperemic response to elevated luminal PCO(2) in the duodenum of anesthetized rats luminally exposed to high CO(2) saline to help elucidate luminal acid-sensing mechanisms.


Blood flow was measured by laser Doppler, and intracellular pH of epithelial cells by measured by ratio microimaging. The permeant carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitor methazolamide, relatively impermeant CA inhibitor benzolamide, vanilloid receptor antagonist capsazepine, or sodium-hydrogen exchanger 1 (NHE-1) inhibitor dimethyl amiloride were perfused with or without the high CO(2) solution.


The high CO(2) solution increased duodenal blood flow, which was abolished by pretreatment with methazolamide or capsazepine or by dimethyl amiloride coperfusion. Sensory denervation with capsaicin also abolished the CO(2) effects. Benzolamide dose-dependently inhibited CO(2)-induced hyperemia and at 100 nmol/L inhibited CO(2)-induced intracellular acidification. The membrane-bound CA isoforms IV, IX, XII, and XIV and cytosolic CA II and the vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1) were expressed in duodenum and stomach. Dorsal root ganglion and nodose ganglion expressed all isoforms except for CA IX.


The duodenal hyperemic response to luminal CO(2) is dependent on cytosolic and membrane-bound CA isoforms, NHE-1, and TRPV1. CO(2)-induced intracellular acidification was inhibited by selective extracellular CA inhibition, suggesting that CO(2) diffusion across the epithelial apical membrane is mediated by extracellular CA. NHE-1 activation preceding TRPV1 stimulation suggests that luminal CO(2) is sensed as H(+) in the subepithelium.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Elsevier Science
    Loading ...
    Support Center