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Am J Transplant. 2006 Jul;6(7):1560-71.

Phosphorylated S6 ribosomal protein: a novel biomarker of antibody-mediated rejection in heart allografts.

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UCLA Immunogenetics Center, David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA, Los Angeles, California, USA.


We tested the hypothesis that phosphorylation of S6 ribosomal protein (S6RP), a downstream target of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway, is a biomarker of antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) in heart allografts. Primary cultures of human aortic and microvascular endothelial cells (EC) were treated with anti-HLA class I and class II antibodies (Ab) and cell lysates were studied for phosphorylation of S6 ribosmal protein at Serine235/236 (p-S6RP). Treatment of cultured EC with anti-class I and class II Ab stimulated S6RP phosphorylation. Immunohistochemical techniques were used to detect the level of p-S6RP in endomyocardial biopsies (n = 131) from 46 heart transplant recipients and the results were correlated with histopathological diagnosis of rejection, C4d staining, production of posttransplant anti-HLA Ab and clinical outcome. Increased phosphorylation of S6RP in endomyocardial biopsies was significantly associated with the diagnosis of AMR (p < 0.0001). No significant association between acute cellular rejection (ACR) and p-S6RP was observed. C4d staining was positively associated with both AMR and p-S6RP. Posttransplant anti-HLA class II Ab production was also significantly associated with a positive p-S6RP status in cardiac biopsies. These results indicate that p-S6RP is a useful biomarker for the diagnosis of AMR.

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