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Mol Cell Proteomics. 2006 Nov;5(11):2044-59. Epub 2006 Jul 6.

Large scale identification and quantitative profiling of phosphoproteins expressed during seed filling in oilseed rape.

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Biochemistry Department, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, Missouri 65211, USA.


Seed filling is a dynamic, temporally regulated phase of seed development that determines the composition of storage reserves in mature seeds. Although the metabolic pathways responsible for storage reserve synthesis such as carbohydrates, oils, and proteins are known, little is known about their regulation. Protein phosphorylation is a ubiquitous form of regulation that influences many aspects of dynamic cellular behavior in plant biology. Here a systematic study has been conducted on five sequential stages (2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 weeks after flowering) of seed development in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. Reston) to survey the presence and dynamics of phosphoproteins. High resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis in combination with a phosphoprotein-specific Pro-Q Diamond phosphoprotein fluorescence stain revealed approximately 300 phosphoprotein spots. Of these, quantitative expression profiles for 234 high quality spots were established, and hierarchical cluster analyses revealed the occurrence of six principal expression trends during seed filling. The identity of 103 spots was determined using LC-MS/MS. The identified spots represented 70 non-redundant phosphoproteins belonging to 10 major functional categories including energy, metabolism, protein destination, and signal transduction. Furthermore phosphorylation within 16 non-redundant phosphoproteins was verified by mapping the phosphorylation sites by LC-MS/MS. Although one of these sites was postulated previously, the remaining sites have not yet been reported in plants. Phosphoprotein data were assembled into a web database. Together this study provides evidence for the presence of a large number of functionally diverse phosphoproteins, including global regulatory factors like 14-3-3 proteins, within developing B. napus seed.

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