Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Surg Endosc. 2006 Oct;20(10):1607-13. Epub 2006 Jul 3.

Impact of carbon dioxide versus air pneumoperitoneum on peritoneal cell migration and cell fate.

Author information

  • 1Department of Pediatric Surgery, University Children's Hospital Zurich, Switzerland, Steinwiesstrasse 75, CH-8032, Zurich, Switzerland.



Postoperative systemic immune function is suppressed after open abdominal surgery, as compared with that after minimally invasive abdominal surgery. As a first line of defense, peritoneal macrophages (PMo) and polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes (PMNs) are of primary importance in protecting the body from microorganisms. Previous studies have shown changes in these cell populations over time after open versus laparoscopic surgery. This study aimed to investigate the dynamics of cell recruitment and clearance of peritoneal cells.


Female NMRI mice (33 +/- 2 g) were randomly assigned to carbon dioxide (CO2) or air insufflation. Intravasal cells with phagocytic capabilities were selectively stained by intravenous injection of the fluorescent dye PKH26 24 h before surgery. Gas was insufflated into the peritoneal cavity through a catheter, and the pneumoperitoneum was maintained for 30 min. Peritoneal lavage was performed 1, 3, 8, or 24 h after surgery. Apoptotic cells were assessed by flow cytometry using a general caspase substrate.


The total peritoneal cell count did not differ between groups. The PKH26-positive PMo level was significantly increased after CO2, as compared with air, at 1 h and 24 h. The ratio of apoptotic PMo did not differ between the groups. In the peritoneal lavage, polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) were tripled in the air group, as compared with the CO2 group, whereas the ratio of apoptotic PMNs was significantly decreased. There was a higher fraction of PKH26-positive PMNs after air exposure, as compared with that after CO2.


Air exposure triggered a higher transmigration rate of PMNs from the blood compartment into the peritoneal cavity and decreased PMN apoptosis, as compared with CO2. The lower proportion of PKH26-positive peritoneal macrophages in the air group might have been attributable to a higher inflammatory stimulation than in the CO2 group, leading to increased emigration of PMo to draining lymph nodes. All the findings underscore a complex cell-specific regulation of cell recruitment and clearance in the peritoneal compartment.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Springer
    Loading ...
    Support Center