Format

Send to

Choose Destination
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Sep;91(9):3598-602. Epub 2006 Jul 5.

Water-induced thermogenesis reconsidered: the effects of osmolality and water temperature on energy expenditure after drinking.

Author information

1
Department of Medicine, Division of Physiology, University of Fribourg, Rue du Musée 5, 1700 Fribourg, Switzerland. clivemartin.brown@unifr.ch

Abstract

CONTEXT:

A recent study reported that drinking 500 ml of water causes a 30% increase in metabolic rate. If verified, this previously unrecognized thermogenic property of water would have important implications for weight-loss programs. However, the concept of a thermogenic effect of water is controversial because other studies have found that water drinking does not increase energy expenditure.

OBJECTIVE:

The objective of the study was to test whether water drinking has a thermogenic effect in humans and, furthermore, determine whether the response is influenced by osmolality or by water temperature.

DESIGN:

This was a randomized, crossover design.

SETTING:

The study was conducted at a university physiology laboratory.

PARTICIPANTS:

Participants included healthy young volunteer subjects.

INTERVENTION:

Intervention included drinking 7.5 ml/kg body weight (approximately 518 ml) of distilled water or 0.9% saline or 7% sucrose solution (positive control) on different days. In a subgroup of subjects, responses to cold water (3 C) were tested.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE:

Resting energy expenditure, assessed by indirect calorimetry for 30 min before and 90 min after the drinks, was measured.

RESULTS:

Energy expenditure did not increase after drinking either distilled water (P = 0.34) or 0.9% saline (P = 0.33). Drinking the 7% sucrose solution significantly increased energy expenditure (P < 0.0001). Drinking water that had been cooled to 3 C caused a small increase in energy expenditure of 4.5% over 60 min (P < 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS:

Drinking distilled water at room temperature did not increase energy expenditure. Cooling the water before drinking only stimulated a small thermogenic response, well below the theoretical energy cost of warming the water to body temperature. These results cast doubt on water as a thermogenic agent for the management of obesity.

PMID:
16822824
DOI:
10.1210/jc.2006-0407
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Silverchair Information Systems
Loading ...
Support Center