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Reprod Biomed Online. 2006 Jul;13(1):71-83.

Future directions of failed implantation and recurrent miscarriage research.

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Fertility Clinic 4071, Rigshospitalet, Blegdamsvej 9, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark. obc@pregnancyloss.dkk


Recurrent implantation failure is today the major reason for women completing several IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection attempts without having achieved a child, and is probably also the explanation for many cases of unexplained infertility. Most causes of recurrent miscarriage are still poorly elucidated, but from a theoretical point of view recurrent implantation failure and recurrent miscarriage are suggested to have partly overlapping causes. Recent research has indeed documented that both syndromes can be caused by the same embryonic chromosomal abnormalities and the same maternal endocrine, thrombophilic and immunological disturbances. Consequently, many treatments attempting to normalize these abnormalities have been tested or are currently used in women with both recurrent implantation failure and recurrent miscarriage. However, no treatment for the two syndromes is at the moment sufficiently documented to justify its routine use. In this review, an overview is given regarding present knowledge about causes that may be common for recurrent implantation failure and recurrent miscarriage, and suggestions are put forward for future research that may significantly improve understanding and treatment options for the syndromes.

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