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J Biomed Mater Res A. 2006 Nov;79(2):307-17.

Mineralization of hydroxyapatite in electrospun nanofibrous poly(L-lactic acid) scaffolds.

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  • 1Chemistry Department, Stony Brook University, New York 11794-3400, USA.


A highly porous electrospun poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) nanofibrous scaffold was used as a matrix for mineralization of hydroxyapatite. The mineralization process could be initiated by immersing the electrospun scaffold in the simulated body fluids (SBF) at 37 degrees C for varying periods of time. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and Raman spectroscopy were used to characterize the composition and the structure of the deposited mineral on the nanofiber surface. Results indicated that the mineral phase was a carbonated apatite with thin flake-like nanostructures. The effects of functional groups on the scaffold surface and anionic additives in the incubation fluids on the nucleation and growth of the mineral were investigated. It was found that a minuscule amount of anionic additives (e.g., citric acid and poly-L-aspartic acid) in the SBF could effectively inhibit the mineral growth. Surface modification of the scaffold was carried out by hydrolysis of PLLA scaffold in NaOH aqueous solution, where carboxylic acid groups were produced without compromising the scaffold integrity. The mineralization process from modified PLLA electrospun scaffolds was significantly enhanced because the calcium ions can bind to the carboxylate groups on the fiber surface.

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