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J Am Diet Assoc. 2006 Jul;106(7):1095-101.

Eating restraint is negatively associated with biomarkers of bone turnover but not measurements of bone mineral density in young women.

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Department of Human Nutrition, Foods, and Exercise, 225 Wallace Hall, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061-0430, USA.


Relationships among bone mineral density (BMD), bone turnover markers, cortisol, calcium and vitamin D intakes, and cognitive eating restraint score were examined. Sixty-five healthy women, ages 18 to 25 years, had total body, spine, hip, and forearm BMD measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Serum osteocalcin, urinary cross-linked N-telopeptide of type I collagen (NTx), and salivary cortisol were measured, and intakes of calcium and vitamin D were estimated from questionnaires. Cognitive eating restraint scores were determined from the Eating Inventory. Associations between measures were analyzed by Pearson correlations; predictors of BMD and bone turnover markers were tested using stepwise regression. Serum osteocalcin (P<0.01) and urinary NTx (P<0.05) were negatively related to cognitive eating restraint score. Intakes of calcium (P<0.05) and vitamin D (P<0.05) were associated with forearm BMD. Regression analyses indicated that vitamin D intake predicted total body (P<0.08) and forearm (P<0.01) BMD. Negative associations between cognitive eating restraint score and bone biomarkers suggest a reduction in bone remodeling, not reflected in current BMD.

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