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J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2006 Sep;43(1):6-14.

Evaluation of oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and topical tenofovir GS-7340 to protect infant macaques against repeated oral challenges with virulent simian immunodeficiency virus.

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California National Primate Research Center, University of California, Davis, CA 95616-8542, USA.


Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of infant macaques is a useful animal model of pediatric HIV infection to evaluate the potential of chemoprophylactic regimens to reduce mother-to-infant transmission of HIV. Previous studies have demonstrated that short-term subcutaneous administration of the reverse transcriptase inhibitor tenofovir was highly effective in protecting newborn macaques against infection after a single high-dose oral inoculation with virulent SIVmac251. In the current study, we mimicked HIV transmission through breast-feeding by repeatedly feeding infant macaques low doses of SIVmac251. Topical administration of a low dose of the second-generation tenofovir prodrug GS-7340 did not have detectable prophylactic efficacy. Oral administration of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (DF; 10 mg/kg SID) lowered the infection rate at birth, but had lower efficacy against virus infection at 4 weeks of age, most likely because drug levels became suboptimal relative to those obtained with the current tenofovir DF regimen in humans. These prophylactic results further underscore the relevance of the current tenofovir DF prevention trials in pediatric and adult populations.

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