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Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2006 Jul;25(3):257-61.

A high-grade uterine leiomyosarcoma with human chorionic gonadotropin production.

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Department of Pathology, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 11794, USA.


Ectopic human chorionic gonadotropin production has been described in a wide variety of non-germ cell tumors, particularly in epithelial tumors, but rarely in sarcomas. In this report, we describe the case of 49-year-old woman with a history of "uterine fibroids," who presented with vaginal bleeding and a positive urine pregnancy test. After pregnancy was ruled out by ultrasound, the patient underwent a laparotomy and hysterectomy for a presumptive diagnosis of "fibroids" and was found to have carcinomatosis at the time of the surgery. Therefore optimal debulking of tumors was performed. Two weeks later, the patient developed a small bowel obstruction, which apparently was due to rapid recurrence of tumors in the abdomen, and soon afterwards she died. Microscopically, the resected pelvic mass was composed of highly atypical and pleomorphic spindle cells admixed with many multinucleated giant cells. The tumor had a high mitotic rate along with areas of hemorrhage and necrosis. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for vimentin, desmin, smooth muscle actin, and beta-human chorionic gonadotropin, and were negative for epithelial membrane antigen, keratin AE1/3, S-100, CD31, CD117, Ber-EP4, WT-1, estrogen and progesterone receptors. The majority of cells, including the multinucleated giant cells, were strongly immunoreactive for beta-human chorionic gonadotropin. Only three cases of leiomyosarcomas with beta/human chorionic gonadotropin production have been described in the literature, and all three cases had extrauterine origin. Our case, to the authors' best knowledge, is the first uterine leiomyosarcoma with prominent beta/human chorionic gonadotropin production.

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