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FASEB J. 2006 Aug;20(10):1709-11. Epub 2006 Jun 29.

Inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase prevents irinotecan-induced intestinal damage and enhances irinotecan/temozolomide efficacy against colon carcinoma.

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Department of Neuroscience, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Via Montpellier 1, Rome 00133, Italy.


Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors enhance the antitumor activity of the topoisomerase I inhibitor irinotecan (CPT-11), which is used to treat advanced colorectal carcinoma. Since PARP inhibitors sensitize tumor cells also to the methylating agent temozolomide (TMZ) and clinical trials are evaluating CPT-11 in combination with TMZ, we tested whether the PARP inhibitor GPI 15427 (10-(4-methyl-piperazin-1-ylmethyl)-2H-7-oxa-1,2-diaza-benzo[de]anthracen-3-one) increases the efficacy of CPT-11 + TMZ against colon cancer. Moreover, due to the ability of PARP inhibitors to avoid cell death consequent to PARP-1 overactivation, we evaluated whether oral administration of GPI 15427 provides protection from the dose-limiting intestinal toxicity of CPT-11. The results of colony formation assay indicated that GPI 15427 increased the antiproliferative effects (combination index <1) of TMZ + SN-38 (the active metabolite of CPT-11) against colon cancer cells. Accordingly, GPI 15427 (40 mg/kg/dayx5 days per os) in combination with TMZ (10 mg/kg/dayx5 days) + CPT-11 (4 mg/kg/dayx5 days) significantly reduced the growth of tumor xenografts. Oral administration of GPI 15427 (40 mg/kg/q2x3 days) prevented intestinal injury and diarrhea induced by CPT-11 (30 mg/kg/day x 3 days) reducing inflammation and PARP-1 overactivation, as evidenced by immunohistochemical staining of intestinal tissue with antipoly(ADP-ribose) antibody (Ab). In conclusion, the PARP inhibitor represents a novel strategy to enhance the antitumor efficacy and reduce toxicity of chemotherapy in colon cancer.

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