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Brain Inj. 2006 Jun;20(7):733-42.

Symptoms of post-traumatic stress: intrusion and avoidance 6 and 12 months after TBI.

Author information

1
National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA. agreenspan@cdc.gov

Abstract

PRIMARY OBJECTIVES:

(1) To examine survivors with traumatic brain injury (TBI) for symptoms of avoidance and intrusion, two dimensions of post-traumatic stress (PTS) at 6 and 12 months post-injury. (2) To identify risk factors associated with these symptoms.

RESEARCH DESIGN:

Prospective follow-up study.

METHODS AND PROCEDURES:

Georgia and North Carolina Model Brain Injury Systems participants (n = 198) with mild (19%), moderate (21%) and severe (60%) TBI were interviewed by telephone at 6 and 12 months post-injury. The Impact of Event Scale (IES) was used to identify intrusion and avoidance symptoms.

RESULTS:

Symptoms consistent with severe PTS increased from 11% at 6 months to 16% 12 months post-injury (p < 0.003). African-Americans (p < 0.01) and women (p < 0.05) reported greater symptomatology at 12 months compared to their counterparts. TBI severity and memory of the event were not associated with PTS-like symptoms. Symptoms increased over time when examined by race, injury intent, gender and age (p < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS:

Regardless of severity, survivors with TBI are at risk for developing symptoms consistent with PTS. Amnesia for the injury event was not protective against developing these symptoms. African-Americans appear to be at greatest risk.

PMID:
16809206
DOI:
10.1080/02699050600773276
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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