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Eur J Med Genet. 2006 Nov-Dec;49(6):466-71. Epub 2006 Jun 12.

A new case of megalencephaly and perisylvian polymicrogyria with post-axial polydactyly and hydrocephalus: MPPH syndrome.

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  • 1Département de Génétique, Hôpital d'Enfants, 10, bd Maréchal de Lattre de Tassigny, 21034 Dijon cedex, France.

Abstract

We report a new case of megalencephaly and polymicrogyria with post-axial polydactyly and hydrocephalus (MPPH syndrome) in an 18-month-old girl. She was the first child of healthy non-consanguineous parents and measurements at birth were +3 standard deviations (S.D.) for weight, +2 S.D. for length and +4 S.D. for OFC. Ultrasound scan at 24 weeks of gestation (WG) showed mild ventriculomagaly with unique umbilical artery and dacryocystocele. Clinical examination at birth revealed macrosomia with macrocephaly, facial dysmorphism, post-axial polydactyly at the right hand and both feet, and axial hypotonia with hypertonic arms and legs. At 18 months of age, weight was +2 S.D., length was +2 S.D. and OFC was +4 S.D. She remained hypertonic, could not sit and had no hand use. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging showed stable ventriculomegaly and polymicrogyria located on the frontal and perisylvian region with white matter hypersignal on T2-weighted images. There was no associated visceral malformation. Standard and high-resolution cytogenetic examination, telomeric FISH and array-CGH studies were normal. This case represents the sixth observation of MPPH syndrome as described by Mirzaa et al. in 2004. We provide further neurological follow-up since three out of five index patients were aged 6 months or less. We postulate that macrosomia at birth might be a major feature (five/six cases), with advanced bone age in the two/two investigated cases. White matter abnormalities might be an occasional feature of this syndrome (three/six cases), as well as dacryocystocele, if not coincidental (one/six case). The mode of inheritance of this syndrome remains unknown since there was no significant family history in all reported cases. The search for infracytogenetic chromosomal imbalance was unsuccessful.

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