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Diabetes. 2006 Jul;55(7):2067-76.

Distinct signals regulate AS160 phosphorylation in response to insulin, AICAR, and contraction in mouse skeletal muscle.

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  • 1Section Head, Metabolism, Joslin Diabetes Center, One Joslin Pl., Boston, MA 02215, USA.


Insulin and contraction increase GLUT4 translocation in skeletal muscle via distinct signaling mechanisms. Akt substrate of 160 kDa (AS160) mediates insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation in L6 myotubes, presumably through activation of Akt. Using in vivo, in vitro, and in situ methods, insulin, contraction, and the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activator AICAR all increased AS160 phosphorylation in mouse skeletal muscle. Insulin-stimulated AS160 phosphorylation was fully blunted by wortmannin in vitro and in Akt2 knockout (KO) mice in vivo. In contrast, contraction-stimulated AS160 phosphorylation was only partially decreased by wortmannin and unaffected in Akt2 KO mice, suggesting additional regulatory mechanisms. To determine if AMPK mediates AS160 signaling, we used AMPK alpha2-inactive (alpha2i) transgenic mice. AICAR-stimulated AS160 phosphorylation was fully inhibited, whereas contraction-stimulated AS160 phosphorylation was partially reduced in the AMPK alpha2i transgenic mice. Combined AMPK alpha2 and Akt inhibition by wortmannin treatment of AMPK alpha2 transgenic mice did not fully ablate contraction-stimulated AS160 phosphorylation. Maximal insulin, together with either AICAR or contraction, increased AS160 phosphorylation in an additive manner. In conclusion, AS160 may be a point of convergence linking insulin, contraction, and AICAR signaling. While Akt and AMPK alpha2 activities are essential for AS160 phosphorylation by insulin and AICAR, respectively, neither kinase is indispensable for the entire effects of contraction on AS160 phosphorylation.

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