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J Hosp Infect. 1991 May;18(1):5-13.

A case-control study of an outbreak of infections caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae strains producing CTX-1 (TEM-3) beta-lactamase.

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Laboratoire de Bactério-Virologie, Faculté de Médecine, Hôpital Saint-Jacques, Clermont-Ferrand, France.


In July 1984 Klebsiella pneumoniae producing beta-lactamase CTX-1(TEM-3) (K. pneumoniae-CTX-1) spread from an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) throughout the hospitals of Clermont-Ferrand, France, and were isolated in four other hospitals of the region. A retrospective case control study was conducted in the ICU to characterize the risk factors for nosocomial infection with this organism. The cases were the 74 patients who had had K. pneumoniae-CTX-1 isolated from one or more clinical samples between July 1984 and December 1987. They were compared with 74 controls for host risk factors, underlying disease, procedures and antibiotic treatment. The monthly incidence of infection/colonization varied from 0% to 14.6%. The mortality rate attributable to this organism was 0.26% during the study period. The duration of stay of cases was longer than that of controls. More cases than controls had ventilatory assistance. However, the predominant risk factor was emergency abdominal surgery. Before K. pneumoniae-CTX-1 was isolated, cases received quinolones and trimethoprim sulphamethoxazole more often than controls. However, only 15% of cases had received third generation cephalosporins while at the onset of K. pneumoniae-CTX-1 infection colonization, 32 patients were no longer being given antibiotics. The use of antibiotic prophylaxis by, for example, selective digestive tract decontamination should be considered in patients at high risk of infection.

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