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Water Res. 2006 Jul;40(13):2527-32.

Genotyping of single Cryptosporidium oocysts in sewage by semi-nested PCR and direct sequencing.

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Department of Civil Engineering, Anan National College of Technology, 265 Aoki, Anan, Tokushima 774-0013, Japan.


This study describes an approach for genotyping individual Cryptosporidium oocysts obtained from sewage. We isolated single immunofluorescent assay (IFA)-stained Cryptosporidium oocysts from sewage concentrate using glass capillary pipettes and inverted epifluorescence microscopy. Each isolated Cryptosporidium oocyst was analyzed by semi-nested PCR for the 18S rRNA gene and direct sequencing of the PCR products. A total of 74 of 107 oocysts isolated from sewage were genotyped successfully. Of the 74 genotyped isolates, 51% (38 oocysts) were identified as C. parvum genotype 1, 4% (3 oocysts) of C. parvum VF383 human isolates, 20% (15 oocysts) of C. parvum genotype 2, 14% (10 oocysts) of C. meleagridis, 7% (5 oocysts) of C. sp. Pig 1, 3% (2 oocysts) of C. sp PG1-26 pig isolates and 1% (1 oocyst) of C. parvum CPM1 isolated from mouse. The results of this study demonstrate that 18S rRNA-based semi-nested PCR and direct sequencing can be used to characterize individual Cryptosporidium oocysts and also to reveal the distribution of Cryptosporidium genotypes in environmental waters.

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