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J Lipid Res. 2006 Sep;47(9):2071-9. Epub 2006 Jun 20.

Role of the kidney in the metabolism of apolipoprotein A-IV: influence of the type of proteinuria.

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Division of Genetic Epidemiology, Department of Medical Genetics, Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck, Austria.


Increased plasma concentrations of apolipoprotein A-IV (apoA-IV) in chronic renal disease suggest a metabolic role of the kidney for this antiatherogenic protein. Therefore, we investigated patients with various forms of proteinuria and found increased serum concentrations of apoA-IV in 124 nephrotic patients compared with 274 controls (mean 21.9 +/- 9.6 vs. 14.4 +/- 4.0 mg/dl; P < 0.001). Decreasing creatinine clearance showed a strong association with increasing apoA-IV levels. However, serum albumin levels significantly modulated apoA-IV levels in patients with low creatinine clearance, resulting in lower levels of apoA-IV in patients with low compared with high albumin levels (21.4 +/- 8.6 vs. 29.2 +/- 8.4 mg/dl; P = 0.0007). Furthermore, we investigated urinary apoA-IV levels in an additional 66 patients with a wide variety of proteinuria and 30 controls. Especially patients with a tubular type of proteinuria had significantly higher amounts of apoA-IV in urine than those with a pure glomerular type of proteinuria and controls (median 45, 14, and 0.6 ng/mg creatinine, respectively). We confirmed these results in affected members of a family with Dent's disease, who are characterized by an inherited protein reabsorption defect of the proximal tubular system. In summary, our data demonstrate that the increase of apoA-IV caused by renal impairment is significantly modulated by low levels of serum albumin as a measure for the severity of the nephrotic syndrome. From this investigation of apoA-IV in urine as well as earlier immunohistochemical studies, we conclude that apoA-IV is filtered through the normal glomerulus and is subsequently reabsorbed mainly by proximal tubular cells.

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