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Clin Infect Dis. 2006 Jul 15;43(2):234-42. Epub 2006 Jun 8.

Case management is associated with improved antiretroviral adherence and CD4+ cell counts in homeless and marginally housed individuals with HIV infection.

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Division of General Internal Medicine, San Francisco General Hospital Medical Center, University of California, San Francisco 94143-1372, USA.



Case management (CM) coordinates care for persons with complex health care needs. It is not known whether CM is effective at improving biological outcomes among homeless and marginally housed persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Our goal was to determine whether CM is associated with reduced acute medical care use and improved biological outcomes in homeless and marginally housed persons with HIV infection.


We conducted a prospective observational cohort study in a probability-based community sample of HIV-infected homeless and marginally housed adults in San Francisco, California. The primary independent variable was CM, defined as none or rare (any CM in <or=25% of quarters in the study), moderate (>25% but <or=75%), or consistent (>75%). The dependent variables were 3 self-reported health service use measures (receipt of primary care, emergency department visits and hospitalizations, and antiretroviral therapy adherence) and 2 biological measures (increase in CD4(+) cell count of >or=50% and geometric mean HIV load of <or=400 copies/mL).


In multivariate models, CM was not associated with increased primary care, emergency department use, or hospitalization. Moderate CM, compared with no or rare CM, was associated with an adjusted beta coefficient of 0.13 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.02-0.25) for improved antiretroviral adherence. Consistent CM (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 10.7; 95% CI, 2.3-49.6) and moderate CM (AOR, 6.5; 95% CI, 1.3-33.0) were both associated with >or=50% improvements in CD4(+) cell count. CM was not associated with geometric HIV load <400 copies/mL when antiretroviral therapy adherence was included in the model. Study limitations include a lack of randomization.


CM may be a successful method to improve adherence to antiretroviral therapy and biological outcomes among HIV-infected homeless and marginally housed adults.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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