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Ther Drug Monit. 2006 Jun;28(3):447-53.

Toxicokinetics of drugs of abuse: current knowledge of the isoenzymes involved in the human metabolism of tetrahydrocannabinol, cocaine, heroin, morphine, and codeine.

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Department of Experimental and Clinical Toxicology, Institute of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Saarland, D-66421 Homburg (Saar), Germany.


This review summarizes the major metabolic pathways of the drugs of abuse, tetrahydrocannabinol, cocaine, heroin, morphine, and codeine, in humans including the involvement of isoenzymes. This knowledge may be important for predicting their possible interactions with other xenobiotics, understanding pharmaco-/toxicokinetic and pharmacogenetic variations, toxicological risk assessment, developing suitable toxicological analysis procedures, and finally for understanding certain pitfalls in drug testing. The detection times of these drugs and/or their metabolites in biological samples are summarized and the implications of the presented data on the possible interactions of drugs of abuse with other xenobiotics, ie, inhibition or induction of individual polymorphic and nonpolymorphic isoenzymes, discussed.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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