Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Circ Res. 2006 Jul 21;99(2):140-8. Epub 2006 Jun 15.

Reduced expression of vascular endothelial growth factor paralleled with the increased angiostatin expression resulting from the upregulated activities of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 in human type 2 diabetic arterial vasculature.

Author information

1
The James Hogg iCAPTURE Center for the Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Research, St. Paul's Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada. achung@mrl.ubc.ca

Abstract

Impaired angiogenesis could contribute to the increased incidence of coronary and peripheral artery disease in diabetic patients. Angiogenesis is initiated by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a potent angiogenic cytokine, and suppressed by angiostatin, which is generated by matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 through proteolytic cleavage of plasminogen. We hypothesized that MMP-2 and -9 were upregulated in the diabetic vasculature, resulting in increased angiostatin production and reduced blood vessel formation. In diabetic internal mammary artery samples (n=32) collected from patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery, capillary density was only 30% of that in the nondiabetic vessels (n=32), whereas VEGF expression was reduced by 48%. Diabetes upregulated the expression and the gelatinolytic activity of MMP-2 and -9. Active MMP-2 and -9 were released from diabetic arteries, but not from nondiabetic vessels, during phenylephrine-induced vasoconstriction. Diabetes enhanced transcription and protein expression of tissue inhibitor of MMP (TIMP)-1 but had an opposite effect on TIMP-2. In diabetic vessels angiostatin was increased by 62% and was positively correlated with the activities of MMP-2 and -9 (r2=0.806 and 0.742, respectively). This report indicated a strong correlation between the upregulation of MMP-2 and MMP-9 and the increased angiostatin expression in the human diabetic arterial vasculature. The enhanced angiostatin production with a reduced VEGF formation may explain the pathogenesis of impaired angiogenesis in diabetes mellitus.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Atypon
Loading ...
Support Center