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Respiration. 2006;73(4):399-409.

The future of bronchoscopy in diagnosing, staging and treatment of lung cancer.

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Department of Pneumology and Critical Care Medicine, Thoraxklinik, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.


Bronchoscopy is a central technique in diagnosing lung cancer, but also in different therapeutic approaches. A lot of techniques are available. The most common indication for bronchoscopy is for tissue sampling and determining the extent of lung cancer. Established diagnostic techniques are forceps biopsy, aspiration or brush cytology sampling, or needle aspiration. Laser therapy, electrocautery, cryotherapy and stenting are well-described techniques for the palliation of symptoms due to airway involvement in patients with advanced stages. Newer technologies, with an established role in clinical practice, are endobronchial ultrasound, autofluorescence bronchoscopy, and electromagnetic navigation. Other technologies, such as magnification, narrow-band imaging and confocal fluorescence microendoscopy, are in development for the use within the airways.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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