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Immunology. 2006 Jun;118(2):153-63.

Lipopolysaccharide induces CXCL2/macrophage inflammatory protein-2 gene expression in enterocytes via NF-kappaB activation: independence from endogenous TNF-alpha and platelet-activating factor.

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Department of Pediatrics (Neonatology), Children's Memorial Hospital, Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago, IL 60614, USA.


CXCL2 (macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2)), a critical chemokine for neutrophils, has been shown to be produced in the rat intestine in response to platelet-activating factor (PAF) and to mediate intestinal inflammation and injury. The intestinal epithelium, constantly exposed to bacterial products, is the first line of defence against micro-organisms. It has been reported that enterocytes produce proinflammatory mediators, including tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and PAF, and we showed that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and TNF activate nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB in enterocytes. However, it remains elusive whether enterocytes release CXCL2 in response to LPS and TNF via a NF-kappaB-dependent pathway and whether this involves the endogenous production of TNF and PAF. In this study, we found that TNF and LPS markedly induced CXCL2 gene expression in IEC-6 cells, TNF within 30 min, peaking at 45 min, while LPS more slowly, peaking after 2 hr. TNF- and LPS- induced CXCL2 gene expression and protein release were completely blocked by pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) and helenalin, two potent NF-kappaB inhibitors. NEMO-binding domain peptide, a specific inhibitor of inhibitor protein kappaB kinase (IKK) activation, a major upstream kinase mediating NF-kappaB activation, significantly blocked CXCL2 gene expression and protein release induced by LPS. WEB2170 (PAF antagonist) and anti-TNF antibodies had no effect on LPS-induced CXCL2 expression. In conclusion, CXCL2 gene is expressed in enterocytes in response to both TNF and LPS. LPS-induced CXCL2 expression is dependent on NF-kappaB activation via the IKK pathway. The effect of LPS is independent of endogenous TNF and PAF.

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